Fact Sheet: Human Trafficking | Office on Trafficking in Persons

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Recruiting includes proactive targeting of vulnerability and grooming behaviors

Harboring includes isolation, confinement, monitoring

Transporting includes movement and arranging travel

Providing includes giving to another individual

Obtaining includes forcibly taking, exchanging something for ability to control

*Soliciting includes offering something of value

*Patronizing includes receiving something of value

*Only for sex trafficking

Force includes physical restraint, physical harm, sexual assault, and beatings. Monitoring and confinement is often used to control victims, especially during early stages of victimization to break down the victim’s resistance.

Fraud includes false promises regarding employment, wages, working conditions, love, marriage, or better life. Over time, there may be unexpected changes in work conditions, compensation or debt agreements, or nature of relationship.

Coercion includes threats of serious harm to or physical restraint against any person, psychological manipulation, document confiscation, and shame and fear-inducing threats to share information or pictures with others or report to authorities.

Commercial Sex Act is any sex act on account of anything of value given to or received by any person.

Involuntary Servitude is any scheme, plan, or pattern intended to cause a person to believe that, if the person did not enter into or continue in such condition, that person or another person would suffer serious harm or physical restraint; or the abuse or threatened abuse of the legal process.

Debt Bondage includes a pledge of services by the debtor or someone under debtor’s control to pay down known or unknown charges (e.g. fees for transportation, boarding, food, and other incidentals; interest, fines for missing quotas, and charges for “bad behavior). The length and nature of those services are not respectively limited and defined, where an individual is trapped in a cycle of debt that he or she can never pay down.

Peonage is a status or condition of involuntary servitude based on real or alleged indebtedness

Slavery is the state of being under the ownership or control of someone where a person is forced to work for another.


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