Jewish Attitudes Toward Non-Jews
maintains that the righteous of all nations have
a place in the world to come. This has been the
majority rule since the days of the Talmud.
Judaism generally recognizes that Christians and Moslems worship the same
G-d that we do and those who follow the tenets of
their religions can be considered righteous in the eyes of G-d.
Contrary to popular belief, Judaism does not maintain that Jews are better than
other people. Although we refer to ourselves as G-d’s chosen people, we do not
believe that G-d chose the Jews because of any inherent superiority. According
to the Talmud (Avodah Zarah 2b), G-d offered the
Torah to all the
nations of the earth, and the Jews were the only
ones who accepted it. The story goes on to say that the Jews were offered the
Torah last, and accepted it only because G-d held a mountain over their heads!
(In Ex. 19:17, the words generally translated as “at the foot of the mountain”
literally mean “underneath the mountain”!) Another traditional story suggests
that G-d chose the Jewish nation because they
were the lowliest of nations, and their success would be attributed to G-d’s
might rather than their own ability. Clearly, these are not the ideas of a
people who think they are better than other nations.
Because of our acceptance of Torah, Jews have a special status in the eyes of
G-d, but we lose that special status when we abandon Torah. Furthermore, the
blessings that we received from G-d by accepting the Torah come with a high
price: Jews have a greater responsibility than non-Jews. While non-Jews are
only obligated to obey the seven commandments given
to Noah, Jews are responsible for fulfilling the 613
mitzvot in the Torah, thus G-d will punish Jews for doing things that would
not be a sin for non-Jews.
The Seven Laws of Noah
According to traditional Judaism, G-d gave Noah and
his family seven commandments to observe when he saved them from the flood.
These commandments, referred to as the Noahic or Noahide commandments, are
inferred from Genesis Ch. 9, and are as follows: 1) to establish courts of
justice; 2) not to commit blasphemy; 3) not to commit idolatry; 4) not to
commit incest and adultery; 5) not to commit bloodshed; 6) not to commit
robbery; and 7) not to eat flesh cut from a living animal. These commandments
are fairly simple and straightforward, and most of them are recognized by most
of the world as sound moral principles. Any non-Jew who follows these laws has
a place in the world to come.
The Noahic commandments are binding on all people, because all people are
descended from Noah and his family. The 613 mitzvot
of the Torah, on the other hand, are only binding
on the descendants of those who accepted the commandments at Sinai and upon
those who take on the yoke of the commandments voluntarily (by
conversion). In addition, the Noahic
commandments are applied more leniently to non-Jews than the corresponding
commandments are to Jews, because non-Jews do not have the benefit of
Oral Torah to guide them in interpreting the laws.
For example, worshipping G-d in the form of a man would constitute idolatry for
a Jew; however, according to some sources, the Christian worship of Jesus does
not constitute idolatry for non-Jews.
Goyim, Shiksas and Shkutzim
The most commonly used word for a non-Jew is goy. The word “goy” means
“nation,” and refers to the fact that goyim are
members of other nations, that is, nations other than the Children of Israel.
There is nothing inherently insulting about the word “goy.” In fact, the
Torah occasionally refers to the
Jewish people using the term “goy.” Most notably,
in Exodus 19:6, G-d says that the Children of Israel will be “a kingdom of
priests and a holy nation,” that is, a goy kadosh. Because Jews have had so
many bad experiences with anti-Semitic non-Jews over the centuries, the term
“goy” has taken on some negative connotations, but in general the term is no
more insulting than the word “gentile.”
The more insulting terms for non-Jews are shiksa (feminine) and shkutz
(masculine). I gather that these words are derived from the
Hebrew root Shin-Qof-Tzadei, meaning loathsome or
abomination. The word shiksa is most commonly used to refer to a non-Jewish
woman who is dating or married to a Jewish man, which should give some
indication of how strongly Jews are opposed to the idea of
intermarriage. The term shkutz is most
commonly used to refer to an anti-Semitic man. Both terms can be used in a less
serious, more joking way, but in general they should be used with caution.
If you are offended to hear that Jewish culture has a negative term for
non-Jews, I would recommend that you stop and think about the many negative
terms and stereotypes that your culture has for Jews.
I once received a message from a man who told me that many Jews do not like
gentiles. He knew this because his (Jewish) girlfriend’s friends and parents
disapproved of him. I explained that these people did not disapprove of him
because he was Christian; they disapproved of him because he was a Christian
dating a Jew, which is another issue altogether.
Traditional Judaism does not permit interfaith marriages. The
Torah states that the children of such marriages
would be lost to Judaism (Deut. 7:3-4), and experience has shown the truth of
this passage all too well. The
National Jewish Population Survey found that only a third of interfaith
couples raise their children Jewish, despite increasing efforts in the
Conservative communities to welcome
This may reflect the fact that Jews who intermarry are not deeply committed to
their religion in the first place: if something is important to you, why would
you marry someone who doesn’t share it? Certainly, the statistics show that
intermarried Jews are overwhelmingly less likely to be involved in Jewish
activities: 85% of Jewish couples have or attend a
Pesach seder, while
only 41% of intermarried Jews do; 66% of Jewish couples fast on
Yom Kippur while only 26% of intermarried Jews
do; 59% of Jewish couples belong to a
synagogue while only 15% of intermarried Jews
do. These statistics and more are sufficiently alarming to be a matter of great
concern to the Jewish community. And the rate of intermarriage has grown
dramatically in recent years: according to the
Jewish Databank, the rate of
intermarriage has risen from 13% in 1970 to 47% since 1996, though the rate of
intermarriage seems to have stopped increasing. One Orthodox Jew I know went so
far as to state that intermarriage is accomplishing what Hitler could not: the
destruction of the Jewish people. That is an
extreme view, but it vividly illustrates how seriously many Jews take the issue
The more liberal branches of Judaism have tried to embrace intermarried
couples, hoping to slow the hemorrhaging from our community, but it is
questionable how effective this has been in stemming the tide, given the
statistics that intermarried couples are unlikely to have any Jewish
involvement or to raise their children Jewish.
Dennis Prager and Joseph Telushkin provide an excellent discussion of the
issues involved in intermarriage in their book
Nine Questions People Ask About Judaism. They note that if the non-Jewish
spouse truly shares the same values as the Jewish spouse, then the non-Jew is
welcome to convert to Judaism, and if the non-Jew does not share the same
values, then the couple should not be marrying in the first place.
If you are considering interfaith dating or marriage, consider this:
Many people who are considering interfaith marriage or dating casually dismiss
any objections as prejudice, but there are some practical matters you should
consider. And before you casually dismiss this as ivory tower advice from a
Jewish ghetto, let me point out that my father, my mother and my brother are
all intermarried, as well as several of my cousins.
Why are you not seeking out a Jewish partner? If you ask many Jews why they
don’t want to date other Jews, you will hear the ugliest list of antisemitic
stereotypes this side of Nazi propaganda. They will tell you that Jewish men
are cheap, neurotic mamma’s boys, not handsome and macho like gentile men. They
will tell you that Jewish women are frigid, materialistic and plain, not fun
and sexy like gentile women. Interestingly, the stereotypes you hear from
gentiles seeking Jews are quite different: that Jewish men are good providers,
that they treat women well, that they don’t abuse women or get drunk, and they
don’t sleep around; that Jewish women are smart, level-headed and loyal, not
bubble-headed bimbos. In fact, there are quite a lot of gentiles who have
registered for JDate, a Jewish dating
network, because they specifically want to date and marry a Jew. If you think
the negative stereotypes don’t fit you, what makes you think they fit Jews of
the opposite sex?
Where will you get married, who will perform the ceremony and how will it
be performed? Most movements of Judaism don’t allow interfaith marriages to be
performed in their synagogues, nor do they allow their rabbis to perform
interfaith marriages, and before you casually dismiss this as bigotry, let’s
remember: you’re the one who is imposing your beliefs (or lack of beliefs) on
them, not the other way around. You’re asking them to put a religious stamp of
approval on an act that has nothing to do with their religion. You might as
well ask the rabbi to say “amen” to a blessing over a ham and cheese sandwich.
But now that you know you may have to be married in a church: how do you feel
about being married under a cross or crucifix? How will your relatives feel
when they are told, “in Jesus’ name, let us say ‘Amen’,” as happened at an
interfaith marriage in my family?
What will you do when Christmas and
Chanukkah overlap? When Easter and
Pesach overlap? Whose holiday will you celebrate?
Will your gentile husband veto the annual Chanukkah visit to your parents
because Christmas is more important, as happened to an intermarried friend of
mine? Will your gentile wife be willing to cook and/or eat the cardboard meals
of Pesach? Will your gentile spouse be willing to sit through the lengthy seder
ritual at your parents’ house, or the lengthy High Holiday services?
How will the children be raised? The Jewish grandparents want a
bris, and the gentile grandparents insist
on baptism. The Catholic grandparents want the child to learn catechism while
the Jewish grandparents are looking forward to the bar mitzvah. Many interfaith
couples think they are being oh-so-enlightened by raising the children with
both faiths and letting them choose. This makes about as much sense as asking
your child to choose which parent’s surname he wants to keep: ultimately,
you’re requiring the child to pick favorites with his parents. A
provides an excellent discussion of the problem
Aside from that, the message you are giving your children is that none of it is
real, that none of it matters, that religion is a Chinese menu and you can pick
one from Column A and one from Column B. You are certainly welcome to believe
that, but don’t expect your local church or synagogue to agree with you. Even
the more liberal movements of Judaism don’t approve of bar mitzvah training for
a child who is simultaneously receiving religious training in another faith,
because it causes too much confusion for the child. If you want your children
to learn about all faiths, don’t send them to bar mitzvah training; send them
to a comparative religion class.
These are just a few of the more important considerations in interfaith
relationships that people tend to gloss over in the heat of passion or in the
desire to be politically fashionable.
In general, Jews do not try to convert non-Jews to Judaism. In fact, according
to halakhah (Jewish Law),
rabbis are supposed to make three vigorous
attempts to dissuade a person who wants to convert to Judaism.
As the discussion above explained, Jews have a lot of responsibilities that
non-Jews do not have. To be considered a good and righteous person in the eyes
of G-d, a non-Jew need only follow the seven Noahic
commandments, whereas a Jew has to follow all 613
commandments given in the Torah. If the
potential convert is not going to follow those extra rules, it’s better for him
or her to stay a gentile, and since we as Jews are all responsible for each
other, it’s better for us too if that person stayed a gentile. The rabbinically
mandated attempt to dissuade a convert is intended to make sure that the
prospective convert is serious and willing to take on all this extra responsibility.
Once a person has decided to convert, the proselyte must begin to learn Jewish
religion, law and customs and begin to observe them. This teaching process
generally takes at least one year, because the prospective convert must
experience each of the Jewish holidays;
however, the actual amount of study required will vary from person to person (a
convert who was raised as a Jew might not need any further education, for
example, while another person might need several years).
After the teaching is complete, the proselyte is brought before a Beit Din
(rabbinical court) which examines the proselyte and determines whether he or
she is ready to become a Jew. If the proselyte passes this oral examination,
the rituals of conversion are performed. If the convert is male, he is
circumcised (or, if he was already
circumcised, a pinprick of blood is drawn for a symbolic circumcision). Both
male and female converts are immersed in the mikvah (a ritual bath used for
spiritual purification). The convert is given a Jewish name and is then
introduced into the Jewish community.
In theory, once the conversion procedure is complete, the convert is as much a
Jew as anyone who is born to the religion. In practice, the convert is
sometimes treated with caution, because we have had some of bad experiences
with converts who later return to their former faith in whole or in part.
However, it is important to remember that
Abraham himself was a convert, as were all of
the matriarchs of Judaism, as was Ruth, an ancestor of King David.
For more information about conversion to Judaism, see
The Conversion to Judaism Home Page. The
information provided at that site is written from a
Conservative perspective, but is valuable
to anyone considering conversion to any
movement of Judaism.
© Copyright 5756-5771 (1995-2011), Tracey R Rich
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